Thread: The Chronicles
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Old 01-17-2010, 03:59 AM
persoiranian persoiranian is offline
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Chronicle, 1450 - 1550 years
In this section you can read a short list of major European historical events of the second era of the game "Reign: Conflict of Nations ", from 1450 to 1550.

1453 - The end of the Hundred Years War
In 1451, France began the final campaign of the Hundred Years War - the liberation of Normandy, and Guinea from the British troops. After the war ended in 1453, the only British outpost on the continent remains a city of Calais.

1453 - Decline of Byzantium
May 29, 1453 was set point in the history of the Byzantine Empire, the last fragments of ancient Rome. After the capture of Constantinople, Sultan Mohammed ordered the expose of the emperor's head Romans Constantine XI to the public, and his body was buried with royal honors. The remaining Byzantine lands became part of the Ottoman Empire.

1455 - Wars of the Roses
After the unsuccessful end of the Hundred Years' War in England began the struggle for the throne, which was attended by supporters of the two branches of the dynasty Plantogenetov. During a bitter power struggle several times passed from hand to hand and was destroyed much of the heirs to the throne, as well as English lords and knights.

1462 - Dracula against the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire conquered the Balkans, including the independent principality of Wallachia in southern Romania. But in 1461 ruler of Wallachia, Vlad III, nicknamed Dracula, refused to pay tribute to the Sultan of Turkey, and the next year, equipping the free peasants and townspeople, and forced to withdraw the Turkish army led by Sultan Mehmed II. However, later he was betrayed by his nobles, and fled to Hungary.

1466 - Journey of Nikitin
In 1466 Tver merchant Athanasius Nikitin went on a journey in which he became the first Russian to visit India. During his travels, he was traveling notes, known as "Going Beyond Three Seas". They contain detailed information about India, and subsequently have also been translated into many European languages.

1469 - Association of Castile and Aragon
In 1469 the Kingdom of Castile and Aragon were united into one state - Spain. This became possible only after the dynastic marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon. To secure absolute power, the royal couple has established the Inquisition, and suppressed the resistance of powerful landowners and the nobility.

1474 - Burgundian War
By the end of the XV century the Duke of Burgundy on the economic and military power able to compete with the French kings, who were vassals. But their big disadvantage was that the most economically developed part of the Duchy were separated from the rest of the territory of France and the principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1474 the Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold launched a military campaign against the French and the Swiss Union. However, the fighting developed poorly, and ended in 1477 with the death of Charles in the Battle of Nancy.

1483 - Violent inquisitor
In 1483 in Spain there was the appointment of the first "Grand Inquisitor Torquemada, whose name later became a symbol of religious reaction. Following his appointment, Torquemada developed a code to regulate the process of the Inquisition.Then he began pursuit, which dealt mainly with Jews and Muslims, recently converted to Christianity. They were accused of being insincere confession of the new faith and secret rituals performed illegal cults.

1485 - New Time in England
With the end of the Wars of the Roses. power in England came to Tudor dynasty.Since their arrival in the British Isles began the new times, the country took an active part in European politics, was held on a set of internal reforms significantly strengthened the position of the kingdom.

1492 - The completion of the Reconquista
For a long time in the Iberian Peninsula was a protracted war, whose purpose was the conquest of the kingdoms of the Moors by Christians, known as the Reconquista. It ended in 1492, when the Christians seized last Muslim kingdom in the Pyrenees - the emirate of Granada.

1492 - Opening of the New World
In 1492, Spanish explorer, Christopher Columbus went to his first trip, trying to find a sea route to India. Under his command there were only three ships, with a total crew of 90 people. October 12 travelers discovered the first land in the western hemisphere, the island of San Salvador, this number is considered the date of the official opening of the New World.

1494 - The redistribution of the world
In 1494 in the town of Tordesillas was signed a treaty that for a long time defined the boundaries of spheres of influence of Spain and Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean. Line section crossed both poles, and was held at 1200 km west of the island of Cape Verde. Sea and land to the west of this line retreated to the kingdom of Portugal, and to the east - to Spain. Agreement was approved by Pope Julius II in 1506

1498 - The sea route to India
July 8, 1497 Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon to India. He went to Africa to the south, the Cape of Good Hope, and reached the southwest coast of India, May 20, 1498.Vasco da Gama became the first European to make the sea voyage to India. Returning to Portugal in September 1499, Vasco da Gama was greeted with great honors, received a large cash prize and the title of "Admiral of the Indian Ocean.

1501 - The emergence of (The Safavids from) Azerbaijan
In 1501 an Iranian prince Ismail I conquered Azerbaijan, which was Part of Iranian soil, and proclaimed himself shahin-shah.After that, he began to mint its own coins, and then segregated from the rest of Muslim countries, proclaiming the main branch of Islam of the state religion of Shiism, unlike in other countries,those who were Sunni.When Ismael became the Shah of Persia in State of Azerbaijan, a Turkish language (with Azerbaijani Accent) was spoken in the state.

1502 - Discovery of America
April 3, 1502 opened the final expedition of Christopher Columbus, during which the great explorer discovered North and South America. September 12 expedition set off from the island of Hispaniola in the direction of Spain.

1505 - Mystery of the centuries
In 1505, the great Italian Leonardo da Vinci Created one of the most famous paintings in the history of mankind, Mona Lisa. Its perfect formula won the artists of subsequent ages, who repeatedly and unsuccessfully tried to create a copy of a masterpiece.

1507 - America got the name
For a long time after the discovery of the Americas was called "West Indies", which was completely untrue. Only in 1507 were invited to name a new land - "America", in honor of Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci. and since then the name became official for the New World.

1510 - Third Rome
In 1510, a monk of the monastery of Pskov Elizarova Filofei addressed to Vasily III with an important message, which argued that Moscow should become a new world religious center. He came to this conclusion, following the thesis of the unity of all Christian churches in the world. He also argued that the world was the first center of ancient Rome, followed by the new Rome - Constantinople, and more recently in their place, became the third Rome - Moscow. Two of Rome fell, - claimed Filofei - and the third stands, and the fourth will not happen. "

1516 - Venetian Ghetto
For a long time the Jews in Venice could not achieve obtaining land for permanent residence. Only in the XVI century, they were entitled to indefinite stay in the city - March 29, 1516 was proclaimed by the decision of the Government. It said: "The Jews should settle everything together in a house yard, which is located in a ghetto near San Girolamo, and that they did not go out at night, on the one hand through the bridge and on the other - across the big bridge to be built two gates that will protect four guards-Christians, and Jews will pay for that. "

1517 - Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
January 22, 1517, Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. At that time it was the state Mamelukes - members of the military caste, which recruited young men for slaves in the Caucasus and Turkic origin. But, despite the subordination of the Turkish Pasha, Mamluks managed to retain a privileged status in Turkish society.

1517 - Beginning of the Reformation
In 1517, Martin Luther was made in Wittenberg 95 theses to the reform of the Catholic Church. The Reformation began, the massive socio-political movement in Western and Central Europe, aims to return to the original traditions of Christianity.This process has caused many upheavals in Europe, and was finally secured Westphalian world in 1648.

1519 - Conquest of Mexico, Cortes
In February 1519 a flotilla Cortes left Cuba and headed toward the mainland. In early March, the expedition landed at a place called Veracruz. Crushing the resistance of local residents, Cortes declared the land belonged to the King of Spain Charles V. Then the expedition headed further west, the land of the Aztecs. There, the Spaniards captured the Aztec leader Montezuma II, and took their country. Spanish victory was achieved not so much because of the horses, guns and firearms (though the Indians did not have any of this), so much because of disunity and internal fighting clans in the Aztec empire, as well as a devastating epidemic which swept across the state.

1525 - Battle of Pavia
February 23, 1525 occurred the first major battle in the history of the New Age. The battle took place under the walls defended by the Spanish city of Pavia, which was under siege of French troops. Thanks to a new type of firearms - muskets, the Spaniards won a decisive victory and captured the French king.

1528 - Union of Christians and Muslims
At the end of the XV century, France and the Ottoman Empire began to conduct diplomatic relations. For the Turks, France was a natural and necessary ally against Hungary at the same time, countries do not have overlapping interests, and therefore - and the reasons for hostility. The final decision about the incredible military alliance with the Muslims against the Christian powers, in February 1525 sent ambassador to the Ottomans.

1530 - Gift of the Emperor
For a long time Hospitaller Order's state was on the island of Rhodes. However, in 1522, after a long siege of the Ottoman army, the Hospitallers were forced to leave the island. Only in 1530 received the Order of their land - the Emperor Charles V gave Hospitallers island of Malta, where the state was to medal in 1798, then became known as the Order of Malta.

1534 - Establishment of the Anglican Church
In 1534 English King Henry VIII began a reformation of the English church. The immediate reason for this was the Pope's refusal to approve the divorce of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. the Reformed Churched was called the Anglican Church, and the head of the church was a king, but it retained all the Catholic rites.

1535 - Viceroyalty of New Spain
In 1535 the Spanish colonies in North America were united in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The structure of New Spain was composed of the territory of modern Mexico, the south-western U.S. states (and Florida), Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Cuba. In addition, the subordination of New Spain was the Philippines, and various islands in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The capital was located in Mexico City and appointed by the Viceroy was directly subordinate to the monarch .The first viceroy of New Spain was Antonio de Mendoza.

1536 - Execution of Anne Boleyn
In May 1536 the second wife of Henry VIII, King of England, went to the gallows on charges of adultery, and thus the state, treason. According to contemporaries, the real reasons for this were complex relationships between spouses and the inability to give the king a son.

1536 - The collapse of Kalmar union
In 1536 Ended The Kalmar Union.This happened after Norway, Denmark announced its province. Despite the fact that Norway has kept its own laws and a number of public bodies, the former Norwegian territories - Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands - have passed into the possession of Denmark.

1540 - Establishment of the Jesuit Order
In 1539 Pope Paul III was submitted to the charter of a new monastic order. The main distinguish it from other similar entities, it was an addendum to the standard three vows: obedience, chastity and non-possession of the fourth - a vow of direct subordination to the Holy Father. September 27, 1540 the charter of the Society of Jesus, was the name of the Order was approved by the papal bull.

1541 - King of Ireland
Until 1536 in Ireland was ruled by puppets of England who did not have absolute power. After suppressing the revolt of one of the governors, the King of England Henry VIII decided to re-conquer the island and already in 1541, Henry proclaimed as king of Ireland. During the next hundred years the British to cement control over Ireland, although not able to do much against the Irish Protestants, they have remained ardent Catholics.

1543 - A new astronomical theory
In 1543 in Nuremberg came chief work of Copernicus. This was the fruit of his more than 30 years of work in Frombork, traktak "On the inversion of the Heavenly Spheres. Despite the fact that the work was dedicated to Pope Paul III, in its first part referred to the sphericity of the Earth, that is not consistent with Catholic religious dogmas of the world order.

Next Update:1550-1650
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