Thread: The Chronicles
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Old 01-17-2010, 05:10 AM
persoiranian persoiranian is offline
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Chronicle, 1550 - 1650 years
In this section you can read a short list of major European historical events of the final era of the game 'Reign: Conflict of Nations", from 1550 to 1650.

1553 - Bloody Mary
In October 1553 Mary I crowned in London. The Queen was thirty-seven years, from the earliest days of her reign, Mary began to be active: its main objective was the return of England to the bosom of the Catholic Church. In the memory of her actions(the massacre of Protestants) she recieved the nickname of Bloody Mary.

1555 - Trade between Russia and Britain
In 1555, English navigator Richard Chancellor visited the second time in Russia. A year later he sailed to England with four heavily laden ships and the Russian envoy. The British received a charter to allow them duty-free trade in all Russian cities.

1555 - Augsburg religious peace
September 25, 1555 the Reichstag held in Augsburg, where the Lutheran and Catholic subjects of the Holy Roman Empire signed a peace agreement. Under this agreement, Lutheranism was recognized as the official religion in the empire, and imperial estates have the right to choose religion. At the same time, the subjects of the empire was still not able to choose their religion, which led to the emergence of the phrase "whose power, order and faith."

1559 - Start of the reign of Elizabeth of England
At the beginning of 1559 to the English throne ascended one of the most famous rulers of the Middle Ages, Elizabeth I of England. Thanks to its competent management of the country, divided into two irreconcilable camps, to avoid civil war. Later, under her rule England became one of the greatest powers of Europe.

1564 - Birth of Genius
April 26, 1564 in one of the English church was baptized a boy named William Shakespeare. In the future, he will become the most famous playwright of all time, and from his pen will come such immortal works as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet "," Macbeth "and many others.

1569 - Union of Lublin
July 1, 1569 on the map of Europe, a new state, united within its borders the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. State was led by the national assembly - the Seimas - along with the selected by the king. State has been called "Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1571 - Holy League
At the end of the XVI century, the Ottoman Turks almost completely controlled the Eastern Mediterranean. This greatly hindered many European states, which is why May 25, 1571 the Republic of Venice, Spain, Vatican City, Genoa, Savoy, Malta, and Parma Taskala formed a coalition of the Christian Catholic countries - the Holy League. Their main goal was to neutralize the power of the Turkish fleet, and the release of his control of the eastern Mediterranean.

1571 - Third Battle of Lepanto
October 7, 1571 there was the largest naval battle of XVI century.In attendance were the combined forces of the Holy League, opposing the fleet of the Ottoman Empire. As a result of this battle, the Turks lost control of the eastern Mediterranean.

1572 - Massacre of St. Bartholomew
On the night of August 24, 1572 in Paris, there was one of the most terrible events in the history of France. Then, on the orders of Catherine de 'Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, was killed in Paris from 3 to 10 thousand Huguenots - French Protestants. Such an order was issued after a failed attempt on the leader of the Protestants, Gaspar de Coligny, who aspired to take power in the country.

1579 - Establishment of Utrecht union
In 1579 the fight against Spanish rule, the northern province of Utrecht in the Netherlands joined the union. The agreement actually would create a single state, the Republic of United Provinces, which was to have a federal structure. Provinces were to create a unified financial system to carry out joint foreign policy, and create a unified army.

1580 - Sir Francis Drake's circumnavigation voyage
September 26, 1580 English navigator Francis Drake returned from a voyage around the world, in which departed in 1577 by command of Queen Elizabeth. From his travels he brought back 600 000 pounds of gold, which he grabbed from the Spanish ships, for which he was awarded a knighthood.

1581 - Establishment of Ostrog Bible
In 1581 in Ostrog Russian pioneer Ivan Fyodorov founded the first Bible in Church Slavonic. This was achieved with the help of the Polish Orthodox prince, Constantine Ostrozky. "Ostrog Bible" was of great importance for Orthodox education in Ukraine and Belarus, where it is opposed by a strong Catholic influence.

1582 - Beginning of the conquest of Western Siberia
September 1, 1582 the Cossack chieftain Yermak Timofeyevich crossed the Ural mountains, and began the conquest of western Siberia. Initially, he achieved great success, breaking the Tatar Khan Kuchum. Later, however, his party suffered heavy losses, while not having received sufficient reinforcements. This led to the fact that the August 6, 1585 Ermak Timofeyevich died, and the Cossacks were forced to retreat back to the Russian land.

1588 - The defeat of the "Invincible Armada"
Since 1586, Spanish King Philip II began to equip a large fleet, which was intended for the conquest of England. In 1588 a fleet of 130 galleons was ready, and 29 July this year there was a grand Gravelinskoe battle in the Strait of English Channel. Through the art of the British admirals of the Spanish fleet was defeated. This battle was a turning point in the history of Spain, which began with the sunset of the great maritime empire.

1596 - Union of Brest
In 1596 the territory of the Commonwealth was committed union of Catholic and Orthodox churches, which took place at the Council of Brest. According to the union, the Orthodox Church in Ukraine and Belarus, admitted its head the Pope, but retained the liturgy in the Slavonic language and rites of the Orthodox Church. This agreement is required in order to weaken the cultural connection of Ukrainians and Belarusians with the Russian people, as well as to provide for the top Orthodox clergy have the same rights as for a Catholic.

1598 - Adoption of the Edict of Nantes
At the end of the XVI century, the land of France was torn by continuous war between the Huguenots and the Catholics. To stop this, the French King Henry IV issued a decree according to which the April 13, 1598 in Nantes, was approved by the edict, gave the French Protestants, the Huguenots religious rights and full equality with the Catholics. No edict XVI century did not provide such a broad tolerance, as Nantes. Subsequently, this led to accuse the ill-wishers of the Huguenots in fact that they are trying to form a state within a state.

1595 - A new type of card
In 1595 Gerhard Mercator introduced a new way of drawing nautical charts, titled "Mercator". When using it on the map is not distorted angles and shapes, but the distance is only stored on the equator. This method is still used to draw a nautical and aeronautical charts.

1600 - Establishment of the East India Company
December 31, 1600 Queen Elizabeth I signed the decree, which established the British East India Company. The company is a joint stock company, headed by the governor and the board of directors, who were responsible to the shareholders' meeting. The initial authorized capital of the company amounted to 72 thousand pounds sterling. Soon after the establishment, the company received government and military functions, which has lost only in 1858.

1603 - The ascent of James I
After the death of Elizabeth I, ascended the English throne, James VI of Scotland, also known as James I of England. Since his arrival, first merged the English and Scottish land under the authority of a suzerain.

1606 - Opening of Australia
In 1606, a small Dutch expedition,was made the first landing of Europeans on the continent of Australia.In course on the map were plotted eastern and northern coast of Australia.

1607 - The first British colony in America
In 1607,in America was founded the first English colony, got the name of Virginia - in honor of the great British "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I.

1608 - Protestant Union
In 1608 Protestants were united in the so-called Evangelical union. Unia includes eight Protestant princes and 17 cities of the Protestant Holy Roman Empire. The reason for consolidation was the conquest of a free city Donauworth Catholics, headed by Maximilian of Bavaria, after the attacks of Protestants to the Catholic procession.During the Thirty Years' War, Protestant Union had several times defeated the Catholic League and in 1621 Formally Dissolved.

1609 - Catholic League
The Union was organized in 1609 as an association of Catholic principalities of Germany on the eve of the Thirty Years War. It was a response of German Catholics to union of Evangelical Protestants in 1608 in the League includes Bavaria, the spiritual principalities - the bishopric of Cologne, Trier, Mainz and Würzburg.

1614 - Star of the Duke Bekingema
In 1614, the King of England and Scotland, James I was presented to George Villiers Buckingham. The king then did not even know what role a young nobleman will play in the history of England. It is believed that the conflict Bekingema with the Spanish court, was the cause of the breakdown of negotiations on the marriage of Prince of Wales with the Infanta, and the subsequent declaration of war to Spain. Activities of Bekingema as de facto head of the British government, caressed the royal mercy, has made the instability in foreign policy that led to the unsuccessful war with Spain and France. Parliament has repeatedly accused Bekingema in violation of national interests and demanded his trial. August 23, 1628 Buckingham was murdered in his house.

1618 - Beginning of the Thirty Years War
By the beginning of XVII century on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire were many volatile regions.The main reason for this situation was increasing pressure of the Catholic Church, which wanted to restore its former influence, lost after the Augsburg religious peace. The situation deteriorated further when the head of the empire became an ardent Catholic - Ferdinand Styrian. As a result, May 23, 1618 in the Protestant Czech uprising began, which later grew into one of the longest and bloodiest wars of that period, affecting most of Europe.

1628 - Capture of La Rochelle
Since 1568 the city-fortress of La Rochelle became the center of French Protestants - the Huguenots. In 1627 the soldiers of La Rochelle had opposed the royal French forces, King Louis XIII ordered the start of the siege of the city, which ended in 1628, his capture, as well as new persecution of the Huguenots, who fled en masse from the country. Capture of La Rochelle was one of the most famous acts of Cardinal Richelieu.

1633 - The trial of Galileo
At the beginning of XVII century are gradually becoming increasingly common world system theory proposed by Copernicus in 1543. But at the same time there was also a second look at the world order, representing the earth plane, defended by followers of Ptolemy. In 1632, with the permission of Pope Urbanta VIII, Galileo published a book, written in the form of a dialogue between the followers of both theories. However, after several months the book banned, and the author tried to judge. However, despite a long investigation and House Arrest, the court failed, because of Galileo's Poor Health,he was permitted to travel to Florence for medical advice.

1635 - Establishment of the French Academy
January 29, 1635 Cardinal Richelieu founded the famous French Academy.The Academy was created to "make the French language is not only elegant, but also able to treat all the arts and sciences.

1637 - Cartesian coordinate system
The Renaissance was a time of great discoveries in all fields of science and art.And one of the greatest discoveries in the field of mathematics was work of Rene Descartes' Discourse on Method for channeling your mind and look for truth in the sciences. As a result of this work was created analytic geometry, and world-known coordinate system - Cartesian.

1637 - Uprising in Scotland
Since coming to power of Charles I, the new king of England and Scotland, he began to attempt the reformation of the Scottish church. However, during the first attempt to worship the new liturgy, July 23, 1637, there have been disturbances in Edinburgh. In spite of the King attempts to settle the problem peacefully, it was not successfull, and eventually led to a break, went down in history as the "Bishops' Wars.

1642 - The English bourgeois revolution
In 1642 in England, civil war broke out, during which the English Parliament opposed the English King Charles I. The result of this struggle has been a transition from absolute monarchy to a constitutional, which limit the power of the king the power of parliament and guarantee people civil liberties.

1642 - The first computer
In 1642, 19-year-old Frenchman, Blaise Pascal created the first "integrating machine. Pascal's machine looked like a box with many connected with each other cogs. Folding of imposing appropriate rotation of the wheels. This principle in almost 300 years became the basis for creating the majority of computing devices. Thus began the era of computer technology.

1648 - Peace of Westphalia
Thirty Years' War was the worst war in the history of Europe since the Renaissance. Participating countries were carrying huge losses in population and economy. Therefore, even in 1638, the Pope and the Danish king called for ending the war. This, however, occurred much later - October 24, 1648, while in Münster and Osnabrück peace treaty was signed. it went into history as the Treaty of Westphalia.

"The End"

Last edited by persoiranian; 01-17-2010 at 06:00 AM.
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