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Old 01-01-2010, 03:44 AM
persoiranian persoiranian is offline
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Exclamation The Chronicles

Major historical events of European Medieval period, 1350-1650

Chronicle, 1350 - 1450 years
In this section you can read a short list of major European historical events of the first era of the game "Reign: Conflict of Nations ", from 1350 to 1450.{source: The Official website of the game}

1356 - Battle of Poitiers
September 19 happened one of the greatest battles of the period of the Hundred Years War. It was attended on the one hand the French troops under the command of King John II the Good, and the other - British troops under the command of Edward the Black Prince. Despite the overwhelming numerical superiority of the French, the British won a decisive victory, and the French king was taken prisoner.

1361 - The ascent of Tamerlane
In 1361 Timur conqueror came from the authority of the Mongol Khan and moved to the side of his enemies. He led a life of adventure and during one of the skirmishes had lost two fingers of his right hand and was severely wounded in his right leg. Because of the effects of the injury he suffered all his life, which many attributed his unusual, even for those times cruelty. Lameness gave him the nickname "lame Timur - Timur-e Lang - later became a adaus" Tamerlane ".

1378 - The Great Schism
In 1377 the last time the Pope Avignon captivity, Gregory XI, decided to return from Avignon to Rome. But shortly afterwards he died, and then in the Roman Catholic Church schism: the Pope's first elections were held under the pressure of the Roman crowd, and were declared invalid. Elected pope was excommunicated from the church, and soon the election of the new Pope. However Urbant VI, was elected first, continued to serve as the Pope of Rome, and the second elected Clement VII went back to Avignon. Following the split of the church there was a split among European countries. The final point in this story was set only in 1417, with the beginning of the reign of Pope Martin V.

1380 - The emergence of Kalmar union
In the XIV century the Scandinavian countries have experienced great difficulties associated with the monopolization of trade in the Baltic German free cities and the Hanseatic League.This was opposed by the union of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the union, which is under the supreme authority of the Danish kings.In this country to sacrifice its sovereignty, but formally remain independent. The first in 1380 and joined the union entered into under the authority of Queen Margaret of Denmark and economically dependent on her, Norway.

1381 - Peasant revolt in England
In 1381 there was an uprising, which became the largest in the history of medieval England. During his rebels managed to seize the Canterbury and London, and then taken the Tower. King Richard II was forced to negotiate and even promised to fulfill the many demands of the rebels, among whom were the abolition of serfdom and the equalization of the rights of all classes. However, during the second meeting of the followers of King killed the head of the rebel Wat Tyler, after which the uprising was crushed.

1389 - Battle of Kosovo
In 1389 there was one of the biggest battles of Christians and the Ottoman Empire. July 28 the army of Serbian Prince Lazar, numbering 80 000 people fought with Murad's army, numbering about 300 000 people. During the battle both leaders were killed, and the Serbian army was defeated. But, despite this, Serbia formally retain the independence, while paying tribute to and undertook to supply the Turkish port of auxiliary troops.

1392 - The fit of madness by Charles VI
In August 1392, King Charles VI of France for the first time experienced an attack of madness. In the future king of the disease led to a protracted civil war, which ended with the collapse of France as a state. Part of its territory was seized by the British, and part was under the control of the royal princes, who were de facto independent rulers. Receivers King had to start everything from scratch - to expel the British, to curb the princes and restore basic state mechanisms.

1393 - allowed to play chess
Since the penetration in Europe, playing chess cause permanent dissatisfaction with the Church.In 1161 Roman Catholic Cardinal Damiani issued a decree banning the game of chess among the clergy. Subsequently, similar bans have been published figures of the church, but also the secular rulers - English King Edward IV, French, Louis IX, and the Polish monarch Casimir IV. However, many continued secretly to play chess, and in 1393 the ban was finally lifted on Regenburgskom cathedral.

1396 - Nikopol crusade
In 1396 took place the last major crusade of the Middle Ages. A large army of crusaders was concentrated under the leadership of the Hungarian King Sigismund, Count John Neverskogo and others. However, the Crusaders suffered a severe defeat by the Turks at the Battle of Nikopol, which forced them to abandon their future plans.

1408 - Revival of the Order of the Dragon
December 13, 1408, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund I of Luxembourg revives the pre-existing Order of the Dragon. In the Order were the best of the knights, and its objectives were the problem of the Cross against the Turks. Hallmark of the Order were medallions depicting a dragon curled up in the ring.

1410 - Battle of Grunwald
15 July 1410 the army of the Teutonic Order entered into battle with the army of the united kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The battle ended with the defeat Teutonic forces, have undermined the influence of the Order, which further led to its disintegration.

1415 - Execution of Jan Hus
In 1415 Jan Hus, who was by then a prominent reformist, arrived in Constanta on the cathedral. His aim was to unite the split of the Roman Catholic Church.Despite the fact that the Holy Roman Emperor promised his personal safety, Jan Hus was accused of heresy and captured. July 6, 1415, he was burned in Konstanz, together with all his works. His death was the cause of prolonged Hussite wars, which led his followers against the Habsburgs and their allies.

1415 - Battle of Agincourt
October 25, 1415 British and French troops fought a battle of Agincourt. Despite the considerable numerical superiority of the French they suffered a heavy defeat by the British. This development was made possible by the extensive use of the English archers, armed with long bows: they accounted for up to 4 / 5 of the British troops.

1429 - The appearance of Joan of Arc
In the late 20-ies of the XV century France was in a very difficult situation. Most of its territory was occupied by British troops, and it seemed that soon the whole country would come under the power of England. However, the appearance of Joan of Arc was able to save the situation - troops under her command lifted the siege seemed doomed Orleans, and then conducted a successful operation to liberate the Loire. That Jeanne became the initiator of the coronation of Charles VII, an event that much to rally the nation. The succession of success was interrupted by the capture of Joan, by the British 29May 1430.

1431 - The burning of Joan of Arc
May 30, 1431 execution of French national heroine Joan of Arc. At the trial, which was arranged by the British, she was accused of heresy, apostasy and idolatry, for which she was sentenced to death. Subsequently, all charges against her were dropped, and in 1920 she was canonized as a saint.

1436 - The collapse of Moldova
The death of the Ruler of Moldavia old Alexander I, that occurred in 1432, led to a civil war within the country. Despite the fact that the throne once occupied one of the sons of the Ruler, Ilya, already in 1433 his brother, Stephen began to challenge the right to rule. After a long war Moldova was divided into two states - Upper and Lower country, each of which rules one of the brothers. But the weak Moldovan Lords could not save their land from Turkish invaders.

1438 - The new Holy Roman Emperor
March 18, 1438, Albert II was elected king of Germany by the German Princes. Thus, he became the first Habsburg, who united under his hand the throne of Austria, Czech , Hungary and Germany. From this year until the fall of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, her throne permanently (except for a brief period from 1742 to 1745 gg.) Held the Habsburgs.

1439 - Association of Catholic and Orthodox Churches
In 1439, during the Ferrara-Florence Cathedral, signed an agreement to merge - union - between the Orthodox and Catholic churches. Under the contract, the Orthodox have saved all their ceremonies, but the head of the church became the Pope. However, already in 1448 the Russian church officially breaks communion with the Catholic through the decision to autocephaly (completely independent of the church), headed by the patriarch, not the Pope.

1445 - The invention of printing
In 1445 a German craftsman Johannes Gutenberg began to produce metal typesetting a font that is used for printing.In the future, his invention spread around the world and led to the emergence of printing in the modern sense.

Next Update:1450-1550

Last edited by persoiranian; 01-01-2010 at 08:55 AM.
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Old 01-17-2010, 03:59 AM
persoiranian persoiranian is offline
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Chronicle, 1450 - 1550 years
In this section you can read a short list of major European historical events of the second era of the game "Reign: Conflict of Nations ", from 1450 to 1550.

1453 - The end of the Hundred Years War
In 1451, France began the final campaign of the Hundred Years War - the liberation of Normandy, and Guinea from the British troops. After the war ended in 1453, the only British outpost on the continent remains a city of Calais.

1453 - Decline of Byzantium
May 29, 1453 was set point in the history of the Byzantine Empire, the last fragments of ancient Rome. After the capture of Constantinople, Sultan Mohammed ordered the expose of the emperor's head Romans Constantine XI to the public, and his body was buried with royal honors. The remaining Byzantine lands became part of the Ottoman Empire.

1455 - Wars of the Roses
After the unsuccessful end of the Hundred Years' War in England began the struggle for the throne, which was attended by supporters of the two branches of the dynasty Plantogenetov. During a bitter power struggle several times passed from hand to hand and was destroyed much of the heirs to the throne, as well as English lords and knights.

1462 - Dracula against the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire conquered the Balkans, including the independent principality of Wallachia in southern Romania. But in 1461 ruler of Wallachia, Vlad III, nicknamed Dracula, refused to pay tribute to the Sultan of Turkey, and the next year, equipping the free peasants and townspeople, and forced to withdraw the Turkish army led by Sultan Mehmed II. However, later he was betrayed by his nobles, and fled to Hungary.

1466 - Journey of Nikitin
In 1466 Tver merchant Athanasius Nikitin went on a journey in which he became the first Russian to visit India. During his travels, he was traveling notes, known as "Going Beyond Three Seas". They contain detailed information about India, and subsequently have also been translated into many European languages.

1469 - Association of Castile and Aragon
In 1469 the Kingdom of Castile and Aragon were united into one state - Spain. This became possible only after the dynastic marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon. To secure absolute power, the royal couple has established the Inquisition, and suppressed the resistance of powerful landowners and the nobility.

1474 - Burgundian War
By the end of the XV century the Duke of Burgundy on the economic and military power able to compete with the French kings, who were vassals. But their big disadvantage was that the most economically developed part of the Duchy were separated from the rest of the territory of France and the principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1474 the Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold launched a military campaign against the French and the Swiss Union. However, the fighting developed poorly, and ended in 1477 with the death of Charles in the Battle of Nancy.

1483 - Violent inquisitor
In 1483 in Spain there was the appointment of the first "Grand Inquisitor Torquemada, whose name later became a symbol of religious reaction. Following his appointment, Torquemada developed a code to regulate the process of the Inquisition.Then he began pursuit, which dealt mainly with Jews and Muslims, recently converted to Christianity. They were accused of being insincere confession of the new faith and secret rituals performed illegal cults.

1485 - New Time in England
With the end of the Wars of the Roses. power in England came to Tudor dynasty.Since their arrival in the British Isles began the new times, the country took an active part in European politics, was held on a set of internal reforms significantly strengthened the position of the kingdom.

1492 - The completion of the Reconquista
For a long time in the Iberian Peninsula was a protracted war, whose purpose was the conquest of the kingdoms of the Moors by Christians, known as the Reconquista. It ended in 1492, when the Christians seized last Muslim kingdom in the Pyrenees - the emirate of Granada.

1492 - Opening of the New World
In 1492, Spanish explorer, Christopher Columbus went to his first trip, trying to find a sea route to India. Under his command there were only three ships, with a total crew of 90 people. October 12 travelers discovered the first land in the western hemisphere, the island of San Salvador, this number is considered the date of the official opening of the New World.

1494 - The redistribution of the world
In 1494 in the town of Tordesillas was signed a treaty that for a long time defined the boundaries of spheres of influence of Spain and Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean. Line section crossed both poles, and was held at 1200 km west of the island of Cape Verde. Sea and land to the west of this line retreated to the kingdom of Portugal, and to the east - to Spain. Agreement was approved by Pope Julius II in 1506

1498 - The sea route to India
July 8, 1497 Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon to India. He went to Africa to the south, the Cape of Good Hope, and reached the southwest coast of India, May 20, 1498.Vasco da Gama became the first European to make the sea voyage to India. Returning to Portugal in September 1499, Vasco da Gama was greeted with great honors, received a large cash prize and the title of "Admiral of the Indian Ocean.

1501 - The emergence of (The Safavids from) Azerbaijan
In 1501 an Iranian prince Ismail I conquered Azerbaijan, which was Part of Iranian soil, and proclaimed himself shahin-shah.After that, he began to mint its own coins, and then segregated from the rest of Muslim countries, proclaiming the main branch of Islam of the state religion of Shiism, unlike in other countries,those who were Sunni.When Ismael became the Shah of Persia in State of Azerbaijan, a Turkish language (with Azerbaijani Accent) was spoken in the state.

1502 - Discovery of America
April 3, 1502 opened the final expedition of Christopher Columbus, during which the great explorer discovered North and South America. September 12 expedition set off from the island of Hispaniola in the direction of Spain.

1505 - Mystery of the centuries
In 1505, the great Italian Leonardo da Vinci Created one of the most famous paintings in the history of mankind, Mona Lisa. Its perfect formula won the artists of subsequent ages, who repeatedly and unsuccessfully tried to create a copy of a masterpiece.

1507 - America got the name
For a long time after the discovery of the Americas was called "West Indies", which was completely untrue. Only in 1507 were invited to name a new land - "America", in honor of Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci. and since then the name became official for the New World.

1510 - Third Rome
In 1510, a monk of the monastery of Pskov Elizarova Filofei addressed to Vasily III with an important message, which argued that Moscow should become a new world religious center. He came to this conclusion, following the thesis of the unity of all Christian churches in the world. He also argued that the world was the first center of ancient Rome, followed by the new Rome - Constantinople, and more recently in their place, became the third Rome - Moscow. Two of Rome fell, - claimed Filofei - and the third stands, and the fourth will not happen. "

1516 - Venetian Ghetto
For a long time the Jews in Venice could not achieve obtaining land for permanent residence. Only in the XVI century, they were entitled to indefinite stay in the city - March 29, 1516 was proclaimed by the decision of the Government. It said: "The Jews should settle everything together in a house yard, which is located in a ghetto near San Girolamo, and that they did not go out at night, on the one hand through the bridge and on the other - across the big bridge to be built two gates that will protect four guards-Christians, and Jews will pay for that. "

1517 - Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
January 22, 1517, Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. At that time it was the state Mamelukes - members of the military caste, which recruited young men for slaves in the Caucasus and Turkic origin. But, despite the subordination of the Turkish Pasha, Mamluks managed to retain a privileged status in Turkish society.

1517 - Beginning of the Reformation
In 1517, Martin Luther was made in Wittenberg 95 theses to the reform of the Catholic Church. The Reformation began, the massive socio-political movement in Western and Central Europe, aims to return to the original traditions of Christianity.This process has caused many upheavals in Europe, and was finally secured Westphalian world in 1648.

1519 - Conquest of Mexico, Cortes
In February 1519 a flotilla Cortes left Cuba and headed toward the mainland. In early March, the expedition landed at a place called Veracruz. Crushing the resistance of local residents, Cortes declared the land belonged to the King of Spain Charles V. Then the expedition headed further west, the land of the Aztecs. There, the Spaniards captured the Aztec leader Montezuma II, and took their country. Spanish victory was achieved not so much because of the horses, guns and firearms (though the Indians did not have any of this), so much because of disunity and internal fighting clans in the Aztec empire, as well as a devastating epidemic which swept across the state.

1525 - Battle of Pavia
February 23, 1525 occurred the first major battle in the history of the New Age. The battle took place under the walls defended by the Spanish city of Pavia, which was under siege of French troops. Thanks to a new type of firearms - muskets, the Spaniards won a decisive victory and captured the French king.

1528 - Union of Christians and Muslims
At the end of the XV century, France and the Ottoman Empire began to conduct diplomatic relations. For the Turks, France was a natural and necessary ally against Hungary at the same time, countries do not have overlapping interests, and therefore - and the reasons for hostility. The final decision about the incredible military alliance with the Muslims against the Christian powers, in February 1525 sent ambassador to the Ottomans.

1530 - Gift of the Emperor
For a long time Hospitaller Order's state was on the island of Rhodes. However, in 1522, after a long siege of the Ottoman army, the Hospitallers were forced to leave the island. Only in 1530 received the Order of their land - the Emperor Charles V gave Hospitallers island of Malta, where the state was to medal in 1798, then became known as the Order of Malta.

1534 - Establishment of the Anglican Church
In 1534 English King Henry VIII began a reformation of the English church. The immediate reason for this was the Pope's refusal to approve the divorce of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. the Reformed Churched was called the Anglican Church, and the head of the church was a king, but it retained all the Catholic rites.

1535 - Viceroyalty of New Spain
In 1535 the Spanish colonies in North America were united in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The structure of New Spain was composed of the territory of modern Mexico, the south-western U.S. states (and Florida), Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Cuba. In addition, the subordination of New Spain was the Philippines, and various islands in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The capital was located in Mexico City and appointed by the Viceroy was directly subordinate to the monarch .The first viceroy of New Spain was Antonio de Mendoza.

1536 - Execution of Anne Boleyn
In May 1536 the second wife of Henry VIII, King of England, went to the gallows on charges of adultery, and thus the state, treason. According to contemporaries, the real reasons for this were complex relationships between spouses and the inability to give the king a son.

1536 - The collapse of Kalmar union
In 1536 Ended The Kalmar Union.This happened after Norway, Denmark announced its province. Despite the fact that Norway has kept its own laws and a number of public bodies, the former Norwegian territories - Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands - have passed into the possession of Denmark.

1540 - Establishment of the Jesuit Order
In 1539 Pope Paul III was submitted to the charter of a new monastic order. The main distinguish it from other similar entities, it was an addendum to the standard three vows: obedience, chastity and non-possession of the fourth - a vow of direct subordination to the Holy Father. September 27, 1540 the charter of the Society of Jesus, was the name of the Order was approved by the papal bull.

1541 - King of Ireland
Until 1536 in Ireland was ruled by puppets of England who did not have absolute power. After suppressing the revolt of one of the governors, the King of England Henry VIII decided to re-conquer the island and already in 1541, Henry proclaimed as king of Ireland. During the next hundred years the British to cement control over Ireland, although not able to do much against the Irish Protestants, they have remained ardent Catholics.

1543 - A new astronomical theory
In 1543 in Nuremberg came chief work of Copernicus. This was the fruit of his more than 30 years of work in Frombork, traktak "On the inversion of the Heavenly Spheres. Despite the fact that the work was dedicated to Pope Paul III, in its first part referred to the sphericity of the Earth, that is not consistent with Catholic religious dogmas of the world order.

Next Update:1550-1650
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Old 01-17-2010, 05:10 AM
persoiranian persoiranian is offline
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Chronicle, 1550 - 1650 years
In this section you can read a short list of major European historical events of the final era of the game 'Reign: Conflict of Nations", from 1550 to 1650.


1553 - Bloody Mary
In October 1553 Mary I crowned in London. The Queen was thirty-seven years, from the earliest days of her reign, Mary began to be active: its main objective was the return of England to the bosom of the Catholic Church. In the memory of her actions(the massacre of Protestants) she recieved the nickname of Bloody Mary.


1555 - Trade between Russia and Britain
In 1555, English navigator Richard Chancellor visited the second time in Russia. A year later he sailed to England with four heavily laden ships and the Russian envoy. The British received a charter to allow them duty-free trade in all Russian cities.

1555 - Augsburg religious peace
September 25, 1555 the Reichstag held in Augsburg, where the Lutheran and Catholic subjects of the Holy Roman Empire signed a peace agreement. Under this agreement, Lutheranism was recognized as the official religion in the empire, and imperial estates have the right to choose religion. At the same time, the subjects of the empire was still not able to choose their religion, which led to the emergence of the phrase "whose power, order and faith."

1559 - Start of the reign of Elizabeth of England
At the beginning of 1559 to the English throne ascended one of the most famous rulers of the Middle Ages, Elizabeth I of England. Thanks to its competent management of the country, divided into two irreconcilable camps, to avoid civil war. Later, under her rule England became one of the greatest powers of Europe.

1564 - Birth of Genius
April 26, 1564 in one of the English church was baptized a boy named William Shakespeare. In the future, he will become the most famous playwright of all time, and from his pen will come such immortal works as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet "," Macbeth "and many others.

1569 - Union of Lublin
July 1, 1569 on the map of Europe, a new state, united within its borders the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. State was led by the national assembly - the Seimas - along with the selected by the king. State has been called "Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

1571 - Holy League
At the end of the XVI century, the Ottoman Turks almost completely controlled the Eastern Mediterranean. This greatly hindered many European states, which is why May 25, 1571 the Republic of Venice, Spain, Vatican City, Genoa, Savoy, Malta, and Parma Taskala formed a coalition of the Christian Catholic countries - the Holy League. Their main goal was to neutralize the power of the Turkish fleet, and the release of his control of the eastern Mediterranean.

1571 - Third Battle of Lepanto
October 7, 1571 there was the largest naval battle of XVI century.In attendance were the combined forces of the Holy League, opposing the fleet of the Ottoman Empire. As a result of this battle, the Turks lost control of the eastern Mediterranean.

1572 - Massacre of St. Bartholomew
On the night of August 24, 1572 in Paris, there was one of the most terrible events in the history of France. Then, on the orders of Catherine de 'Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, was killed in Paris from 3 to 10 thousand Huguenots - French Protestants. Such an order was issued after a failed attempt on the leader of the Protestants, Gaspar de Coligny, who aspired to take power in the country.

1579 - Establishment of Utrecht union
In 1579 the fight against Spanish rule, the northern province of Utrecht in the Netherlands joined the union. The agreement actually would create a single state, the Republic of United Provinces, which was to have a federal structure. Provinces were to create a unified financial system to carry out joint foreign policy, and create a unified army.


1580 - Sir Francis Drake's circumnavigation voyage
September 26, 1580 English navigator Francis Drake returned from a voyage around the world, in which departed in 1577 by command of Queen Elizabeth. From his travels he brought back 600 000 pounds of gold, which he grabbed from the Spanish ships, for which he was awarded a knighthood.

1581 - Establishment of Ostrog Bible
In 1581 in Ostrog Russian pioneer Ivan Fyodorov founded the first Bible in Church Slavonic. This was achieved with the help of the Polish Orthodox prince, Constantine Ostrozky. "Ostrog Bible" was of great importance for Orthodox education in Ukraine and Belarus, where it is opposed by a strong Catholic influence.



1582 - Beginning of the conquest of Western Siberia
September 1, 1582 the Cossack chieftain Yermak Timofeyevich crossed the Ural mountains, and began the conquest of western Siberia. Initially, he achieved great success, breaking the Tatar Khan Kuchum. Later, however, his party suffered heavy losses, while not having received sufficient reinforcements. This led to the fact that the August 6, 1585 Ermak Timofeyevich died, and the Cossacks were forced to retreat back to the Russian land.

1588 - The defeat of the "Invincible Armada"
Since 1586, Spanish King Philip II began to equip a large fleet, which was intended for the conquest of England. In 1588 a fleet of 130 galleons was ready, and 29 July this year there was a grand Gravelinskoe battle in the Strait of English Channel. Through the art of the British admirals of the Spanish fleet was defeated. This battle was a turning point in the history of Spain, which began with the sunset of the great maritime empire.

1596 - Union of Brest
In 1596 the territory of the Commonwealth was committed union of Catholic and Orthodox churches, which took place at the Council of Brest. According to the union, the Orthodox Church in Ukraine and Belarus, admitted its head the Pope, but retained the liturgy in the Slavonic language and rites of the Orthodox Church. This agreement is required in order to weaken the cultural connection of Ukrainians and Belarusians with the Russian people, as well as to provide for the top Orthodox clergy have the same rights as for a Catholic.

1598 - Adoption of the Edict of Nantes
At the end of the XVI century, the land of France was torn by continuous war between the Huguenots and the Catholics. To stop this, the French King Henry IV issued a decree according to which the April 13, 1598 in Nantes, was approved by the edict, gave the French Protestants, the Huguenots religious rights and full equality with the Catholics. No edict XVI century did not provide such a broad tolerance, as Nantes. Subsequently, this led to accuse the ill-wishers of the Huguenots in fact that they are trying to form a state within a state.


1595 - A new type of card
In 1595 Gerhard Mercator introduced a new way of drawing nautical charts, titled "Mercator". When using it on the map is not distorted angles and shapes, but the distance is only stored on the equator. This method is still used to draw a nautical and aeronautical charts.

1600 - Establishment of the East India Company
December 31, 1600 Queen Elizabeth I signed the decree, which established the British East India Company. The company is a joint stock company, headed by the governor and the board of directors, who were responsible to the shareholders' meeting. The initial authorized capital of the company amounted to 72 thousand pounds sterling. Soon after the establishment, the company received government and military functions, which has lost only in 1858.

1603 - The ascent of James I
After the death of Elizabeth I, ascended the English throne, James VI of Scotland, also known as James I of England. Since his arrival, first merged the English and Scottish land under the authority of a suzerain.

1606 - Opening of Australia
In 1606, a small Dutch expedition,was made the first landing of Europeans on the continent of Australia.In course on the map were plotted eastern and northern coast of Australia.

1607 - The first British colony in America
In 1607,in America was founded the first English colony, got the name of Virginia - in honor of the great British "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I.

1608 - Protestant Union
In 1608 Protestants were united in the so-called Evangelical union. Unia includes eight Protestant princes and 17 cities of the Protestant Holy Roman Empire. The reason for consolidation was the conquest of a free city Donauworth Catholics, headed by Maximilian of Bavaria, after the attacks of Protestants to the Catholic procession.During the Thirty Years' War, Protestant Union had several times defeated the Catholic League and in 1621 Formally Dissolved.

1609 - Catholic League
The Union was organized in 1609 as an association of Catholic principalities of Germany on the eve of the Thirty Years War. It was a response of German Catholics to union of Evangelical Protestants in 1608 in the League includes Bavaria, the spiritual principalities - the bishopric of Cologne, Trier, Mainz and Würzburg.

1614 - Star of the Duke Bekingema
In 1614, the King of England and Scotland, James I was presented to George Villiers Buckingham. The king then did not even know what role a young nobleman will play in the history of England. It is believed that the conflict Bekingema with the Spanish court, was the cause of the breakdown of negotiations on the marriage of Prince of Wales with the Infanta, and the subsequent declaration of war to Spain. Activities of Bekingema as de facto head of the British government, caressed the royal mercy, has made the instability in foreign policy that led to the unsuccessful war with Spain and France. Parliament has repeatedly accused Bekingema in violation of national interests and demanded his trial. August 23, 1628 Buckingham was murdered in his house.

1618 - Beginning of the Thirty Years War
By the beginning of XVII century on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire were many volatile regions.The main reason for this situation was increasing pressure of the Catholic Church, which wanted to restore its former influence, lost after the Augsburg religious peace. The situation deteriorated further when the head of the empire became an ardent Catholic - Ferdinand Styrian. As a result, May 23, 1618 in the Protestant Czech uprising began, which later grew into one of the longest and bloodiest wars of that period, affecting most of Europe.

1628 - Capture of La Rochelle
Since 1568 the city-fortress of La Rochelle became the center of French Protestants - the Huguenots. In 1627 the soldiers of La Rochelle had opposed the royal French forces, King Louis XIII ordered the start of the siege of the city, which ended in 1628, his capture, as well as new persecution of the Huguenots, who fled en masse from the country. Capture of La Rochelle was one of the most famous acts of Cardinal Richelieu.

1633 - The trial of Galileo
At the beginning of XVII century are gradually becoming increasingly common world system theory proposed by Copernicus in 1543. But at the same time there was also a second look at the world order, representing the earth plane, defended by followers of Ptolemy. In 1632, with the permission of Pope Urbanta VIII, Galileo published a book, written in the form of a dialogue between the followers of both theories. However, after several months the book banned, and the author tried to judge. However, despite a long investigation and House Arrest, the court failed, because of Galileo's Poor Health,he was permitted to travel to Florence for medical advice.

1635 - Establishment of the French Academy
January 29, 1635 Cardinal Richelieu founded the famous French Academy.The Academy was created to "make the French language is not only elegant, but also able to treat all the arts and sciences.


1637 - Cartesian coordinate system
The Renaissance was a time of great discoveries in all fields of science and art.And one of the greatest discoveries in the field of mathematics was work of Rene Descartes' Discourse on Method for channeling your mind and look for truth in the sciences. As a result of this work was created analytic geometry, and world-known coordinate system - Cartesian.

1637 - Uprising in Scotland
Since coming to power of Charles I, the new king of England and Scotland, he began to attempt the reformation of the Scottish church. However, during the first attempt to worship the new liturgy, July 23, 1637, there have been disturbances in Edinburgh. In spite of the King attempts to settle the problem peacefully, it was not successfull, and eventually led to a break, went down in history as the "Bishops' Wars.

1642 - The English bourgeois revolution
In 1642 in England, civil war broke out, during which the English Parliament opposed the English King Charles I. The result of this struggle has been a transition from absolute monarchy to a constitutional, which limit the power of the king the power of parliament and guarantee people civil liberties.

1642 - The first computer
In 1642, 19-year-old Frenchman, Blaise Pascal created the first "integrating machine. Pascal's machine looked like a box with many connected with each other cogs. Folding of imposing appropriate rotation of the wheels. This principle in almost 300 years became the basis for creating the majority of computing devices. Thus began the era of computer technology.

1648 - Peace of Westphalia
Thirty Years' War was the worst war in the history of Europe since the Renaissance. Participating countries were carrying huge losses in population and economy. Therefore, even in 1638, the Pope and the Danish king called for ending the war. This, however, occurred much later - October 24, 1648, while in Münster and Osnabrück peace treaty was signed. it went into history as the Treaty of Westphalia.

"The End"

Last edited by persoiranian; 01-17-2010 at 06:00 AM.
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