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  #681  
Old 03-18-2012, 06:49 PM
Glider Glider is offline
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All
I believe that a lot of frustration is being expressed and think it would be a good time to stand back, look at the overall picture and let people decide the strength of the two sides of the argument. This is best done by showing all the relevant papers in the time line so everyone can see how they fit together.

Before I start I will confirm my view that all of Fighter Command was effectively supplied with 100 Octane Fuel for the BOB, that the case is a strong one, but not, a perfect one. However all the following are supported by original documentation from the NA or from published works

16th March 1939 Meeting
Held to consider the question when 100 Octane Fuel should be brought into use in the RAF and the number and type of squadrons involved.

There are three main parts to this.
i) It is true that at this meeting authorisation was given for 16 fighter squadrons and two twin engined bomber squadrons be converted to be use 100 Octane fuel by September 1940. The change over to start at the end of 1939 and the ACAS would select the squadrons.
ii) It was anticipated that these units would use 10,000 tons of fuel over a twelve month period and this would slow down the aim of achieving an 800,000 ton reserve.
iii) The AMPD asked that he should be kept informed as to the progress of the production of the 100 Octane fuel in order that the change over of squadrons could be kept under review in the light of any acceleration or diminution in Supplies.

General Points
- Clearly this is a peace time plan, the war hadn’t started, 18 squadrons would use a lot more than 10,000 tons over twelve months when at war. It is certain that when war started there would be changes.
- It covers both fighters and bombers
- They were not defined as being Blenheim just twin engined bombers of which the RAF had a number of types.
- The 18 squadrons wasn’t a fixed number, it was open to change.

14th November 1939 letter Supplied by Kurfurst
The tests of 100 Octane in the Hurricane and Merlin
In this letter it mentions:-
i) That the tests were successful
ii) It is understood that sufficient stocks of 100 Octane are available
iii) That approval for use in Hurricanes and Spitfires should be given forthwith

7th December 1939 Letter from FC Admin to HQ
This letter starts going into the nuts and bolts of how the change from 87 to 100 Octane would need to be handled. It’s the sort of information any change of this magnitude will need.
The most interesting part is that it lists the 21 operational stations at which the fuel will be required in the first instance. At the time these were all the stations that were equipped or planned to be equipped, with Hurricanes and Spitfires. Also that training units would not be supplied with 100 Octane.

12th December 1939 Letter from Director Of Equipment re Issue of 100 Octane Fuel
Letter confirms that 100 Octane Fuel is approved for use in Spitfire, Hurricane and Defiant aircraft. Issue to be made as soon as the fuel is available at the distribution depots servicing the fighter stations concerned. Some bomber units may be given priority.
The date of use is dependent on when the fuel can be put down in bulk at the distribution sites and the relevant stations. Re the latter as a station empties a tank of 87 Octane it will be replaced with 100 Octane.

Observations
Clearly 7th and 12th papers are a change to the March 1939 notes. Certain aircraft are included and other aircraft in Fighter Command are excluded, no Blenheim fighter units are included or are any Gladiator units.
There is no limit set to the number of squadrons or area such as 11 Group, or any reference to specific squadrons. The RAF decided to use the 100 Octane and instead of limiting it to a number of squadrons, have decided to limit it by type of aircraft. All current and planned Spitfire and Hurricane bases are identified as being in the first instance.
Its worth commenting that Fuel was held at different levels, Strategic Reserves where they were imported, Regional level which is self explanatory, District Level which for FC was depots close to the Sector Stations and those at the individual satellite stations that were supplied from the Sector Stations. The method of distributing 100 Octane was to burn off the supplies of 87 Octane and as the tanks emptied to replace them with 100 Octane fuel. It takes time to use the 87 Octane Fuel in place, to make way for the 100 Octane so there isn’t a schedule roll out, the time will vary from station to station.

February 1940
The first combat reports are being recorded using 100 Octane and stations are also reporting the replacement of 87 Octane with 100 Octane fuel. Clearly the roll out is starting to reach the squadrons and one of the stations we have records for is Drem in Scotland and North Weald in the South of England. Drem is the last place I would change over to 100 octane, if there was a shortage of the fuel

24th February 5th Meeting of the Oil Committee
Request from ACAS that squadrons with Spits, Hurricanes and Blenheim should begin to use 100 Octane., no limitations.
Interesting choice of words as it is clear that some squadrons and bases have already converted and are using 100 Octane. However, there is a change in the replacement process they are discussing how to actively remove 3,600 – 4,000 tons of 87 octane fuel from station storage and replace it with 100 Octane, they are no longer waiting for the 87 Octane to be used up. The pace of change has increased.

6th April 6th Meeting of the Oil Committee
Progress Report on the change.
2 Group Bomber Command making good progress and want to have only 100 Octane on their bases. Agreement reached that four stations would only have 100 Octane and the others five sixths of fuel to be 100 Octane and one sixth 87 Octane.
Confusion in Fighter Command over the changes needed to operate 100 Octane. A Mr Tweedle is tasked with clarifying the situation with Fighter Command
There is also confirmation that the approved storage capacity of 800,000 tons is sufficient and that this tankage will hold between 640-700, 000 tons of fuel allowing for Ullage.
Definition of Ullage - the quantity of wine, liquor, or the like, remaining in a container that has lost part of its contents by evaporation, leakage, or use

18th May 1940 7th Meeting of the Oil Co ordination Committee Summary of Conclusions
The key points here are:-
i) The Committee took note that the position of the use of this fuel in Hurricane and Spitfire aircraft had been made clear to Fighter Command.
ii) Satisfaction was expressed that the units concerned had been stocked with the 100 Octane Fuel
iii) The Minutes were to reflect the appreciation of the work of the Petroleum Board and that the Air Ministry had been impressed with the manner in which the work had been executed.

May 1940 France
There are a number of papers detailing the roll out of 100 Octane to the RAF units in France. These were not in the original list of stations to be equipped and we have similar records for the RAF units sent to Norway.

Squadron Records Post May 1940
A number of RAF squadrons that took part in the BOB formed after May 1940, namely the commonwealth squadrons. None of the records that I have seen for these units mention any change over to 100 Octane and I checked these records until May 1941 by which time they would certainly be using 100 Octane. It’s my belief that this was because the use of 100 Octane after May 1940 was the norm.

1st August 1940 Memo from Downing re the Handling of the Merlin Engine
This note is advising the pilots that there is an increase in engine failures in the overuse of the emergency 12lb boost.
The interesting thing is that this memo was sent to ALL fighter groups. Had we been talking about the 16 squadrons or less this would not have been the case. It would have been sent to the squadrons involved.

7th August 1940
Note confirming that the Use of 100 Octane had been authorised for all Commands.This speaks for itself.


Reserves Information
The following information are the reserve stocks of 100 Octane fuel during the BOB period
This information has come from the War Cabinet Oil Position Monthly report (a) that is available from the National Archives, as well as Gavin Baileys paper(b) and Wood and Dempster(c).

Stocks of 100 Octane
30th September 1939 153,000 tons(b)
27th February 1940 220,000 tons(b)
31st May 1940 294,000 tons(a)
11th July 1940 343,000 tons(b)
31st August 1940 404,000 tons(a)
10th October 1940 424,000 tons(c)
30th November 1940 440,000 tons(a)

Point of interest. From the start of the war until the end of the BOB the reserves never dropped and continued to increase. There was never any danger of the supply of the oil running out, there is no record of any concern over the lack of 100 Octane fuel supplies, in the Air Ministry or the Oil Co ordination Committee, until May 1944.
From September 1939 small quantities of 100 Octane of under 1000 tons were held at Malta and Gibraltar

Consumption Information
The following information are the consumption details of fuel during the BOB period. This information has come from the War Cabinet Oil Position Monthly report that is available from the National Archives.

Consumption of Aviation Spirit
The following figures are for the Air Minstry and are the Average Monthly Consumption

September – November 1939 16,000 tons
Dec 1939 – February 1940 14,000 tons
March 1940 – May 1940 23,000 tons
June 1940 – August 1940 10,000 tons (100 Oct) 26,000 tons (87 Oct)
Sept 1940 – November 1940 15,000 tons (100 Oct) 18,000 tons (87 Oct)

Consumption was running at approx 21% of the Imports

Combat Reports
We have combat reports from over 30 squadrons showing the use of 100 Octane. Its worth mentioning here that the NA have changed access to the combat records. They used to be on microfilm so it was fairly easy to get the combat reports for a squadron and find an example. They are now available on line, but you have to pay to view each record and you cannot view them until you have paid so it becomes a very expensive business with many hundreds of records to look at. A price I cannot afford, but have little doubt that if we were to look at the other squadrons we would find similar records.

Important Note
All the above is supported by original documentation with the exception of my observation on the Squadron Records of Post May, I did look at a number but not all of those squadrons that is a fact but the interpretation is mine alone

Last edited by Glider; 03-18-2012 at 06:53 PM.
  #682  
Old 03-18-2012, 06:51 PM
Glider Glider is offline
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Those who doubt the Previous Posting

Their arguments seem to be based on the following

The Phrase the Units concerned and Certain Units

It’s my belief that these words were used to refer to bases/units which had not yet been converted to 100 Octane. We know that the roll out had already started, as proved by the Station / Combat reports we have from February 1940. This view is supported I believe by:-
• the number of combat records we have from over 30 squadrons
• the report in the May meeting where the appreciation of the work of the Petroleum Board was expressed and that the Air Ministry had been impressed with the manner in which the work had been executed
• The total lack of any conversion records of any FC station or squadron after May 1940 which were checked until May/June 1941

The belief is expressed by some that the use of Certain or concerned proves that the roll out was limited and some have said that this is clearly a continuation of the pre war Feb 1939 plan.
We have the 21 stations identified as being in the first instance, clearly there was going to be a second instance, clearly this is more than 16 Squadrons. We know that units in France were equipped with 100 octane and those in Norway, so the 21 stations was built on, this could easily be defined as a second instance.
There is absolutely no evidence that says that the roll out was limited. As a minimum the Oil Co ordination committee would have been involved as they were responsible for the purchase, storage and distribution of all fuel.
Those who believe this to be the case are invited to provide some evidence. I have stated what I believe to be the definition of Certain and Concerned with what evidence I can find. Its not perfect but I have tried and have shown what I found. I invite the doubters to do the same

The view that it didn’t mean 16 squadrons it meant no more than 16 Squadrons using 100 Octane at the same time
This is totally new and no one has even tried to support it. Those who propose it are encouraged to support this view with some evidence.

Pips Views
This paper has never been seen but more importantly there is no evidence to support any of the statements made in it. The War Cabinet didn’t make the decisions he said it did. There was no shortage of 100 Octane, nothing. Again those who believe this view are encouraged to find some evidence to support any part of it.

Pips Didn’t Mean the War Cabinet
This view that the War Cabinet was actually a much bigger thing with hundreds of component parts is fanciful. The War Cabinet was the War Cabinet, it had a structure, it had members, it had minutes and it was chaired by the Prime Minister. A lot of parties reported to it, including the Air Ministry and the Oil Committee, but the War Cabinet was the War Cabinet and the minutes are available on line.
People who believe this are invited to find out who made these decisions, it wasn’t the Air Ministry and it wasn’t the War Cabinet.

Pilots Notes I and IIB
This has been done in some detail recently. The only thing I can add is that I would expect to find Spit I Pilots notes to have 100 octane and 87 Octane because:-
a) it was in service before 100 Octane was available
b) Spit I’s were in the training Units and they didn’t have 100 Octane

Important Note
I invite anyone to look at the evidence put forward to support each side of the case and make their own minds up

Last edited by Glider; 03-18-2012 at 06:54 PM.
  #683  
Old 03-18-2012, 06:58 PM
Kurfürst Kurfürst is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Glider View Post
18th May 1940 7th Meeting of the Oil Co ordination Committee Summary of Conclusions
The key points here are:-
i) The Committee took note that the position of the use of this fuel in Hurricane and Spitfire aircraft had been made clear to Fighter Command.
ii) Satisfaction was expressed that the units concerned had been stocked with the 100 Octane Fuel
iii) The Minutes were to reflect the appreciation of the work of the Petroleum Board and that the Air Ministry had been impressed with the manner in which the work had been executed.
In short, the RAF recored in May 1940 that the issue of 100 octane was limited to select units.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Glider View Post
Combat Reports
We have combat reports from over 30 squadrons showing the use of 100 Octane.
Out of 60+ Squadrons.

In addition, within these over 30 Squadrons there are duplications, when several Squadrons rotate between the same stations.

We can identify about 20-25 Stations supplied with 100 octane fuel at one time or another out of 50+.
__________________
Il-2Bugtracker: Feature #200: Missing 100 octane subtypes of Bf 109E and Bf 110C http://www.il2bugtracker.com/issues/200
Il-2Bugtracker: Bug #415: Spitfire Mk I, Ia, and Mk II: Stability and Control http://www.il2bugtracker.com/issues/415

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  #684  
Old 03-18-2012, 07:19 PM
Al Schlageter Al Schlageter is offline
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List of officially accredited Battle of Britain squadrons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...tain_squadrons

Hurricane (36) and Spitfire (19) squadrons numbered 55

Sector Group Sector Station Satellite Airfield or airfields
A 11 Tangmere RAF Westhampnett
B 11 Kenley RAF Croydon
C 11 Biggin Hill RAF West Malling, RAF Gravesend[7]
D 11 RAF Hornchurch RAF Gravesend, RAF Rochford, RAF Manston, RAF Hawkinge
E 11 RAF North Weald RAF Stapleford Tawney, RAF Martlesham Heath
F 11 RAF Debden RAF Martlesham Heath[8]
G 12 RAF Duxford RAF Fowlmere
K 12 RAF Wittering RAF Coltishall
L 12 RAF Digby RAF Ternhill
M 12 RAF Kirton-in-Lindsey
N 12 RAF Church Fenton RAF Leconfield
O 13 RAF Usworth RAF Catterick
P 13 RAF Acklington
Q 13 RAF Turnhouse RAF Drem, RAF Grangemouth
R 13 Dyce RAF Grangemouth
S 13 RAF Wick RAF Kirkwall, RAF Sumburgh
W 10 RAF Filton RAF Boscombe Down, RAF Colerne, RAF Pembrey
Y 10 RAF Middle Wallop RAF Boscombe Down, RAF Warmwell, RAF Exeter, some control over RNAS Roborough, RAF St Eval
Z 11 RAF Northolt RAF Hendon

Last edited by Al Schlageter; 03-18-2012 at 07:24 PM.
  #685  
Old 03-18-2012, 07:34 PM
Kurfürst Kurfürst is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Glider View Post
Those who doubt the Previous Posting

Their arguments seem to be based on the following

The Phrase the Units concerned and Certain Units

It’s my belief that these words were used to refer to bases/units which had not yet been converted to 100 Octane.
Yes it's your belief and it's supported by nothing and specifically disproven by the documents you supplied yourself. These papers discuss in great lenght and express specifically that 100 octane is not meant for all stations, and specifically dismiss the suggestion to have only 100 octane at those stations which do not require it.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Glider View Post
We know that the roll out had already started, as proved by the Station / Combat reports we have from February 1940. This view is supported I believe by:-

• The total lack of any conversion records of any FC station or squadron after May 1940 which were checked until May/June 1941
'Which were checked' seem to be keyword here. You checked but a handful of reports but mislead everyone here that there's no trace. The truth is you haven't checked it in a manner that would justify such claims.

Quote:
The belief is expressed by some that the use of Certain or concerned proves that the roll out was limited and some have said that this is clearly a continuation of the pre war Feb 1939 plan.
Which it is, all the papers you have supplied follow exactly the schedule laid down by the March 1939 plan. Absolutely no indiciation or evidence have been presented that the plan was overidden at any time.

And certain means what it means.

Quote:
We have the 21 stations identified as being in the first instance, clearly there was going to be a second instance, clearly this is more than 16 Squadrons.
Nope, these 21 stations you keep mentioning from the December 1939 letters by FC are merely a list of stations where RAF FC would have liked to have 100 octane fuel.

You have supplied no evidence that these 21 stations were approved for 100 octane issues nor that 100 octane was actually issued to them.

Quote:
There is absolutely no evidence that says that the roll out was limited.
In other words, you have absolutely no information or evidence to the extent of the roll out, or that it was unlimited, and you merely keep ignoring and dismissing every paper that specifically note that it was limited as 'pre-war plans' and 'mis-types'.

Quote:
As a minimum the Oil Co ordination committee would have been involved as they were responsible for the purchase, storage and distribution of all fuel.
Those who believe this to be the case are invited to provide some evidence. I have stated what I believe to be the definition of Certain and Concerned with what evidence I can find. Its not perfect but I have tried and have shown what I found. I invite the doubters to do the same
Here's the definition of 'certain' for you:

pronoun
(certain of)
some but not all:
certain of his works have been edited

http://oxforddictionaries.com/defini...tain?q=certain

Quote:
Pips Views
This paper has never been seen but more importantly there is no evidence to support any of the statements made in it. The War Cabinet didn’t make the decisions he said it did.
We have discussed this. To put it bluntly, your claims about checking the War Cabinet decisions was a lie.

Quote:
There was no shortage of 100 Octane, nothing. Again those who believe this view are encouraged to find some evidence to support any part of it.
This is a nice strawman argument. Nobody claimed that the there was a shortage of 100 octane stocks, however there were uncertainities with consistent supplies, partly due to U-boot activity and partly due to dependence on US manufacturers, their capacity and willingness; this is clearly noted by a dozen British historians like Morgan and Shacklady or the official studies. You ignore them all.

Quote:
Pips Didn’t Mean the War Cabinet
This view that the War Cabinet was actually a much bigger thing with hundreds of component parts is fanciful. The War Cabinet was the War Cabinet, it had a structure, it had members, it had minutes and it was chaired by the Prime Minister. A lot of parties reported to it, including the Air Ministry and the Oil Committee, but the War Cabinet was the War Cabinet and the minutes are available on line.
People who believe this are invited to find out who made these decisions, it wasn’t the Air Ministry and it wasn’t the War Cabinet.
You keep repeating this obvious nonsense. On one hand you claim the War Cabinet was one single body, and then you contradict yourself that 'a lot of parties reported to it'. The nonsense Glider repeats is that the War Cabinet had no Committes, and then he names the Oil Committee of the War Cabinet.

Committees are smaller cells of the Cabinet, and Glider hadn't checked these, but claims he has done so. Further information at http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/r...fice.htm#17741

Quote:
Pilots Notes I and IIB
This has been done in some detail recently. The only thing I can add is that I would expect to find Spit I Pilots notes to have 100 octane and 87 Octane because:-
a) it was in service before 100 Octane was available
b) Spit I’s were in the training Units and they didn’t have 100 Octane
I am curious of the evidence of the claims made in b). So which 'training units' had Spitfire Is and from where do you take they had no 100 octane fuel? Have you seen a document about it? A paper? A list of which units have 100 octane and which didn't?

Quote:
Important Note
I invite anyone to look at the evidence put forward to support each side of the case and make their own minds up
Well to cut the long story short, the only definitive evidence you have provided is that 100 octane was used by about 30 Squadrons out of 60, or about 20 Stations out of 50.

And that is just that, about 1/3 to 1/2 the units, so quite simply there's no factual basis, or evidence to, that all the others were using 100 octane. It's merely a wishful assumption.
__________________
Il-2Bugtracker: Feature #200: Missing 100 octane subtypes of Bf 109E and Bf 110C http://www.il2bugtracker.com/issues/200
Il-2Bugtracker: Bug #415: Spitfire Mk I, Ia, and Mk II: Stability and Control http://www.il2bugtracker.com/issues/415

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  #686  
Old 03-18-2012, 07:51 PM
Al Schlageter Al Schlageter is offline
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So Barbi what RAF FC squadrons used only 87 octane fuel?
  #687  
Old 03-18-2012, 07:58 PM
41Sqn_Banks 41Sqn_Banks is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kurfürst View Post
This seem to confirm that the unamended Pilot's notes from June 1940 was already referring the Spitfire IIA and IIB types, so Glider's assumption that the mention of cannon armament refers to a later date manual is clearly wrong.
Actually it does not. Only the cover states "IIB", but within the text there is only reference to 8 Browning .303 machine guns.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/4598146/Pi...lin-XII-Engine

Introduction Para 7
Quote:
Eight Browning .303 in. machine guns ...
Section 1 Para 44
Quote:
The eight guns ...
As this scan is from a post-war (?) reproduction (See copyright on last page) probably used a different cover that contains "IIA" and "IIB".
  #688  
Old 03-18-2012, 08:00 PM
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Osprey Osprey is offline
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He doesn't know. But remember, the fact that there is no evidence is countered by the fact that the RAF were the enemy of his favourite aeroplane. When the second fact occurs then no other facts matter.
  #689  
Old 03-18-2012, 08:19 PM
Kurfürst Kurfürst is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by 41Sqn_Banks View Post
As this scan is from a post-war (?) reproduction (See copyright on last page) probably used a different cover that contains "IIA" and "IIB".
Yes its seems possible - maybe the repro or the scanning person frankensteined together a couple of manuals.
__________________
Il-2Bugtracker: Feature #200: Missing 100 octane subtypes of Bf 109E and Bf 110C http://www.il2bugtracker.com/issues/200
Il-2Bugtracker: Bug #415: Spitfire Mk I, Ia, and Mk II: Stability and Control http://www.il2bugtracker.com/issues/415

Kurfürst - Your resource site on Bf 109 performance! http://kurfurst.org
  #690  
Old 03-18-2012, 08:31 PM
NZtyphoon NZtyphoon is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kurfürst View Post
We have discussed this. To put it bluntly, your claims about checking the War Cabinet decisions was a lie.

This is a nice strawman argument. Nobody claimed that the there was a shortage of 100 octane stocks, however there were uncertainities with consistent supplies, partly due to U-boot activity and partly due to dependence on US manufacturers, their capacity and willingness; this is clearly noted by a dozen British historians like Morgan and Shacklady or the official studies. You ignore them all.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Kurfürst View Post
Well let's see now the reality.

Tanker losses to all causes, I have gathered a total of 78(!!) tankers were sunk by mine, U-boot (typically), aircraft and raiders, between September 1939 and November 1940. About 90% of them were British, though there are a couple of Swedish, Dutch, French etc. tankers
Tanker losses were serious, unfortunately.
From the NA:
cab68/6/11 "War Cabinet Oil Position: Thirty-third Weekly Report: 23 April 1940" (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ Click "Search" then "Browse our guidance A-Z" Click "C" then "Cabinet Government" which will highlight "The Cabinet and its committees" scroll down to 3. "Cabinet Papers online" click on cab68; enter reference no. "cab68/6/11" in this format in top l/h corner of new page, click on "Go to reference"; click on "View digital image" then "+Add to shopping"; it is free and downloadable)

"The process of bringing Norwegian tankers under Allied control has advanced during the week, and of a total fleet of 212 Norwegian tankers 119 are now under Allied control, while 18 are proceeding to Allied ports; 93 are in neutral ports or reported to be proceeding to neutral ports..."

Meaning in April 1940 Britain had already gained the use of 119 Norwegian tankers, 41 more than were sunk between Sept 1939 and November 1940, and more were expected.

cab68/7/31 "War Cabinet Oil Position Monthly Report: November 1940" (issued 20 December) (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/r...-1939-1945.htm)


Table I: "Imports Into the United Kingdom (Services and Civil)"

Shows the total number of tankers arriving in UK ports in the year between September 1939 and August 1940 = 947: (Total shown in table = 1,079 minus 132, June to August 1939.)

March to May 1940 = 109 tankers; 1,112,300 tons imported;
June to August = 100 tankers; 1,058,900 tons


total tonnage of oil products imported = 9,986,900. (11,126,900 minus 1,140,000 tons, imported June to August 1939.): an average of 10,546 tons per tanker.

September and October 1940: 124 tankers (62 per month) arrived and in November 80: September = 640,500 tons of imports; October = 651,600; November = 890,300 tons

Grand Total of Tankers arriving in UK Sept 1939 to November 1940 = 1,151
Grand Total of Oil Products Imported = 12,169,300 tons: 10,573 tons of oil product per tanker


Total number sunk Sept 1939 - Nov 1940 = 78(!!); 385,957 tons of oil product = roughly 6.8% tankers; roughly 3.2% of tons imported to Britain. The amount of oil product per tanker destroyed was 4,948 tons, meaning on average the tankers sunk were carrying less than half the weight of cargo each tanker that arrived in port was discharging; the tankers being sunk were either smaller than average, or, more likely, at least half of them were sunk in ballast.

Quantity of fuel available ( production estimates) from non US sources as of November 1940

Heysham 150,000 tons
Trinidad 80,000 tons
Billingham 15,000 tons
Stanlow 55,000 tons
Abadan 50,000 tons
Aruba 50,000 tons
Palembang 50,000 tons
Pladjoe 50,000 tons

Last edited by NZtyphoon; 03-22-2012 at 03:34 AM. Reason: url not working
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